tv Washington Journal Cram for the Exam with Andrew Conneen and Daniel... CSPAN April 30, 2017 9:07am-10:03am EDT
passed, the internet was free and open. there was not a problem, as the chairman said, there was no dystopian controlled internet with isp's or anyone else interfering with people's ability to post content. "the communicators" monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span two. continues.on journal >> and if that time of year again for high school students around the country. it is not only finals, but for a lot of young folks out there it is one of the best -- big finals, the ap advanced placement u.s. government exam. some call it the kentucky derby of civics exams. here, once again, to tell us all about the test and how to get ready our andrew conneen, a teacher at adlai e. stevenson high school. good morning and his colleague, daniel larsen.
you, mr.rt with larson, what is this test all about? daniel: what a great opportunity for students across the country. fouthay, may 4, maybe be with you. if students do well on this test, they could get college credit. it is bigger and better for us. they are good citizens. they are prepared and ready. what better time to have a good civics lesson the now. we are excited students, for your opportunities on thursday. we are here to answer your questions. do your best, and remember it is more than just a test or class, this is a lifestyle. >> andriy, what is the best day in the last four days to cram? we know they should have been doing this all along. me classome have taken for four years, some just one semester. i think the best thing is to listen to your teachers.
to thank c-span, washington journal, the people who have made this happen for nine years, but especially to those ap government teachers across the country who have been helping to prepare students, both in the class and twitter. we have a short list of teachers who helped students on twitter, esther putnam, miss rainbow, mr. stanton. we were talking this morning, it is the greatest hour celebrating great teaching on tv and willie -- annually. it is great to hear the students call in, shout out to their teachers, trust your teacher, they're doing a great job. we are happy we can be here to reinforce the concept. paul: we want to the phone numbers on a screen -- but the phone numbers on a screen. -- in the eastern and central time zones.
and the mountains. only high school students. we will throw questions that you. , talk to us about the format of the exam, any changes this year, and what our time management tips? >> a lot of great teachers out there. i know they are preparing ,tudents well because this test we don't know the format because that will improve the study. multiple-choice, 16 questions, 45 minutes. read each question carefully. guess if you have to, no penalty. you get 100 minutes to answer free response questions. read this questions carefully. rsvp your answers, repeat the language from the prompt, space c,ropriately, mark it a, b,
space appropriately and get rid of the pronouns. don't just talk about the government, talk about the federal government, a government, regional, be specific. use examples. management,of time the free response questions, you will have plenty of time. 100 minutes is about 25 minutes per question. right extra examples. if they asked for one, provide more. provide a lot of space. >> then, from easton, massachusetts, good morning. >> good morning. >> are you ready? >> yes. i want to shout out to michael mcnamara, my government teacher. i also want to give a shout out to my friends. my question is, regarding
foreign policy and defense policies, what are some important doctrines you should know, for example, the truman and reagan doctrine? >> great question. there will be policy questions on the test. you will have an opportunity to talk about the policies, and the process. it is not a history test. there will not be a lot of what we used to call, advanced placement u.s. history questions. truman doctrine, containment policy, use as an example, but you will not held -- be held accountable on the multiple-choice. civil rights -- brown versus the board of the leading to the grassroots activism. then, i love a shout outs. we call that coalition building.
we think that is a concept you will have to know. the idea of special interest groups and parties and coalitions, those big 10 of political parties, you're doing it in your classroom. >> sophia is calling. sophia: good morning. first, i would like to shout out to shannon. are five-2-7's and what is their role in the election? >> campaign finance is a tricky topic that will probably be assessed. these are an example of super packs. these are roads -- relatively recent developments in campaign-finance. the keyword you need to know is "loopholes." the reality is the right to free speech, the supreme court has said repeatedly the government can regulate some campaign-finance money, we call that hard money. they can put limits on that.
other money you are free to spend, particularly for an independent effort. those five 27th are in defending 's are -- the 527 independent. we know that corporations and labor unions can spend an unlimited amount of money in those super packs. >> the difference between a super pack and a -- is a pack. aipac is hard money. they collect money, a political action company collect money and gives the two candidates. super packs collect unlimited amounts but cannot give it to the candidate. >> to sophia and the other students calling in, you can ask questions, but we have some for you. we will throw questions. sophia, are you ready? sophia: i am trying.
>> which cases are most likely to be heard by a supreme court. a trial for a lawsuit between two fbi agents? a habeas corpus hearing for a murder suspect? an appeal of a lawsuit involving two governments? a state german -- gerrymandering procedure? a criminal involving a bank robbery? which are most likely to be heard in the supreme court? the first one is a trial for a lawsuit between two fbi agents. >> the second? >> the second is the kbs is hearing for a murder suspect -- habeas corpus hearing for a murder suspect. >> i will guess a. >> the correct answer is c. , there areeme court thousands and thousands of
appeals every year that want to have their case heard by the united states and court. they only hear about 80 oral arguments each term, how do they decide. you need the rule of 4. .hey choose which cases to hear what makes the case more likely to be heard? usually if there is a dispute between lower federal court, it is always an appeal. to speed -- dispute between two states, renumber the supreme court is the ultimate appellate. >> it was letter c. remember the supreme court is more likely to hear cases involving a rugby match between two states. the u.s. circuit courts -- when two states fight it out they will go to a federal. >> let's go to madison.
madison: good morning. shout out to mr. meadows in seventh period. my question is, how many questions do you think will be on a test on the most current events regarding the election and other things happening in the world. >> this is not going to be a current events test. i would be shocked if you saw the name hillary clinton or donald trump. presidential elections will certainly be there. elections, popular sovereignty, the power of the people to be the base of the democratic republic. particularly, the nomination process that both hillary and donald trump had to go through within their parties, especially the general election, you should know the word "general election." you should know how the electoral college operate. that is the indirect election of the president. clearly we saw one of the results of the presidential election can be the popular vote winner, hillary clinton, can
actually lose if the other candidate wins the minute -- majority of the electoral votes. for every archie, veronica, and brett, current events will not be tested on multiple-choice. it is a great way to prepare for the fr2. morning you'reod on with andrew and daniel. caroline: hello, good morning. i want to give a shout out to my teacher, mr. hensley. >> question? caroline: can you sum up the articles of confederation? >> can i? i can sum it up -- the articles of confederation failed. the big question of american government is simply, where should the power be? we know we need government, but where?
under the articles they put most of the power in the state governments. not a bad idea at the time, coming out of the revolution. in the end it did not work. they needed a stronger, central government to take on a bigger questions -- the economy, national security. the articles of confederation pale and they knew u.s. constitution may be central government stronger. the question is, how strong? >> one thing you need to know about the transition from the articles, to the constitution was the economic power in the new constitution. should theerm you assessed about is the interstate commerce clause. the idea that the new government had more power to regulate trade between states as compared to the congress under the articles. >> caroline, are you ready for a question? caroline: sure. >> which is the institutional reason for the two-party political system in the u.s.?
here are the possible answers -- >> standards set in the original constitution. state rules establishing single number legislative districts. court rulings that block the existence of alternative political parties. >> imminence of the constitution that created the two-party system. executive orders that blocked parties from ballot access. any thoughts? caroline: can you repeat the answers. >> it is hard when on the spot. on a test we encourage you to highlight and scratch things. this question addresses a difficult question -- why only two parties? there are institutional reasons. there are laws. we have single member districts, winner take all, plurality election rolls, where the most votes when. win. >> the answer was the
single-member district. most states have single-member district, or winner takes all rules for the candidate who wins the most votes. , ituse of those rules promotes a two-party system. it is not unlike sports. ,f you have a sports league like the nfl, with one trophy at the end and only one team can win coming you typically divide up the league into two conferences. it works that it way in professional baseball and football and most of the political systems. >> how much of a challenge as the to teach this particular class? what does it really take for the student to get a five? theeach them a concept that concepts of american government, we say a lot of times is like teaching a secondary language. instead of esl, we are teaching gsl, government as a secondary language. students who read the newspaper or watch c-span have heard the
link which more, but our job as -- heard these things more, but our job as teachers is to understand the concept. >> these scores are important. when they say, what makes you successful, no one says a tesco score, what makes you successful in showing up. we applaud all of the students showing up to class every day who want to be good citizens. >> al in, thank you. -- alan, thank you. allen: shout out to my ap teacher. my question is, what is the difference between interest groups and packs. that assuming i struggle with. -- that is something i struggle with. >> packs are a form of interest groups the federal government has a role that interest groups intollowed to give money
the political system, as long as they get it through a legal entity known as a political action committee. way that interest groups and some corporations individuals start packs that give money. vicki difference between packs -- the key difference between packs and super packs is a packs are limited on how much they can directly give to a candidate. there are hard money limits. are unlimited spending by interest groups or individuals as long as the money is going to independent efforts that are not directly related specifically to a candidate. >> know the difference between interest groups and political parties. political parties want to win elections, interest groups want to win issues. both extremely important. early in it is california, let's wake you up
with a question. you up? >> always. >> which congressional committee schedules a bill for floor debate. the senate judiciary committee. the house ways and means. the senate appropriations committee. the house rules committee. the joint conference committee. with d.t to go >> you got it. >> we are looking at the house of representatives, there are distinctions between the house and senate. one of the biggest distinctions, you will be asked on thursday, what is the house rules committee? there is no rules committee like this in the senate. in part because the house is so big, 435 members, it is rowdy. the house rules committee is given that authority to determine how will the debate go
on the house floor. the senate, not necessarily peaceful and passive either, but the senate has the filibuster rule. andne can stop that vote abate forever until the -- the rules committee determines those open and close rules. >> let's clarify, we don't write the test, and we don't know if it will be on there, but one of the concepts that citizens should know is the legislative process in the house and senate is quite different. the house is always a much faster process. they limit debate. that is something the rules committee does. the senate process is slower because one of the rules is more unlimited debate for the potential for filibuster and they also allow amendments. that is one of our first -- favorite that affords in political science come of the cup and the saucer, the house acting as the cup, hot, elected
every two years, passing bills quickly -- the senate as the cooling saucer. the cooling chamber to really temper the heat of legislation the house passes. >> one more critical point. make sure when you read the multiple-choice questions to keep your eye on those keywords like what is an institutional difference versus a constitutional france. -- difference. we have talked about institutional differences, but make sure you understand when it says constitutional differences, the house gets the authority to raise revenue bills. that is the constitutional prerogative of the house. on the senate side, senators have the prerogative of approving residential appointment. isaac wants to know on twitter, what should we answer if we get a question on the nuclear option. >> there is a new concept, but it has been around for years.
this idea of should we limit the filibuster in the u.s. senate? we know that several years ago, when the senate was run by limiteds, the democrats the filibuster when it comes to the appointment of lower-level justices. that is an important concept. the student -- senate is not just about appointing supreme court justices, they are also appointing and approving those presidential appointment to the u.s. district court's of the lowest level and the circuit court of appeals. the u.s. senate limited the use of the filibuster for those lower-level courts. we have just seen the proposal can controlled senate limit the use of the filibuster or u.s. supreme court justices. you should be aware that rules can change. this is not in the constitution. this is a senate rule. the senate can change it. they have changed their rules.
recently they have changed the more frequently than we have seen before. this is one of the things the senate debates. betterave a new and c-span in the classroom website we want to tell you about. c-span.org/classroom. updated resources for teachers of social studies, economics, science, and other topics. members can create and save videos. it is free. go to c-span.org. we have danny on the line. good morning. danny: i want to give a shout out to my teacher. >> nice to hear from you. the first student from a long time from stevenson. , can youstion is differentiate between a civil rights amendments and what court cases go with those.
? how do they correlate? ? >> there is no shortage of questions students have about the amendments. i would remember what we call civil war amendments -- 13, 14, and 15. they really changed the game for civil rights. the 13th amendment abolished slavery. the 14th, my favorite, brought in those critical terms -- to process and equal protection. due process dealing with liberties, but also civil rights. , this is the civil war when civil rights began because it in power to the national government to oversee and supervise the extension of quality. in terms of civil rights outside of the in terms of civil rights outside the amendments, we will remind you of the idea of two big pieces of national legislation, the voting rights to of 1965, which went
enforce the 14th amendment, getting rid of a lot of poll taxes, literacy tests that were preventing african-americans from registering to vote, and the civil rights act of 1964. publicsegregated facilities. what is it like to absorb all of this? you have your teachers on the line. what makes a great teacher in a class like this? how do you grasp it all? caller: i think their personalities are very sociable and knowledgeable. they help students the best way they can to prepare. host: talk about mr. larsen. guest: i cannot give you a bonus on the test. host: thanks for calling. let's go to james in massachusetts. caller: good morning.
i would like to give a shout out to my government teacher, she is the best ap government teacher. my question is, what do judicial activist believe in? guest: when we talk about jurisprudence on the federal bench, it is how do judges make up their mind? there are two big options. those who practice judicial activism, and those who practice judicial restraint great activists tend to be more liberal. restraint tend to be more conservative. activists see the constitution as a living document. they are the arbiters not only of what the constitution meant in its original form, but what does it mean as our values and issues have evolved. those who practice restraint, whatever the word says, that is what the word means. guest: restraint seems to be more ideologically conservative.
we heard that during the judge gorsuch confirmation hearings. they are looking at what the original law says, what the founders intended when they wrote that. that is where we are hearing that textualist. we have a supreme court related question from you. which of these cases would most likely be heard by the supreme court? in which two different appellate districts offered competing rulings. the case involving a lawsuit fbi supervisor and agent. a lawsuit involving a state involving a a trial terrorist. which of these cases most likely to be heard by the high court? caller: i am going to say a. host: you got it.
give us the background. guest: how do the courts decide which cases to hear? there are so many appeals every year, and so few cases are heard. they tend to find those cases where there are conflicts in lower courts and difficulties between issues between states or two federal judges that have ruled differently. it is tough. is where we get the concept of the rule of four. it takes four justices to hear a case. that is a good test taking skills we emphasize with our students. know those sentiments. -- synonyms. know the rule of four and the different synonyms for some of us concepts. context tools to figure those out. it does become a vocabulary test. host: we will do this for about
25 more minutes with andrew conneen and daniel larsen. the advanced placement government test taking place this thursday around the country. toward the end of the segment, we will have a couple bonus questions. if you get those questions, we have a signed copy of the u.s. constitution. one side by bernie sanders, and the other by ted cruz. the most important parts to remember about how a bill becomes a law? guest: the lawmaking process was created to be difficult. so often we hear this mantra, do nothing congress. the founding fathers might be pleased with that adjective. the legislative process is difficult. remember a couple of key points. a member of congress has to propose a bill. it can start in the house or
senate unless it is a revenue bill. it must start in the house. the house rules committee determines debate on the floor. passesend, if the bill the house and the senate, typically they are not exactly the same. they must go to a conference committee. then he goes to the president. the president can get rid of the whole thing with his veto. the congress can override. most overrides stick. fewer than 4% of presidential vetoes have been overturned. the process is messy and noisy. it was meant to be that way. guest: a short version of that, a bill has to pass in identical form in the house and senate. guest: remember those committees. remember what a standing
committee is. this is where bills are written, study, marked up. standing committees are permanent. it allows for expertise from the numbers of congress. host: another call from california. good morning. caller: good morning. i would like to do a shout out to my third period teacher mr. cummins. what are topics that are most likely to appear on frq's? guest: we always tell our students when you're walking into that test room, the best thing you can think about are examples of checks and balances between the three branches of government. whether it is the night before or the morning, if you want that quick brain check, brain drain your list of checks and balances. one of my favorites is how a budget gets made on capitol hill.
we know there is a law that was passed in 1974, the budget reform act, which gives the president priority in preparing the budget. he uses his white house staff from the office of the president to prepare the budget. it is actually congress that writes the budget. they write the budget the way they write laws. after they write the budget, it is up to the president to approve or reject. rejection of a bill is called veto. you go through those examples of checks and balances. you cannot go wrong. that is a prime feature of our government. we have empowered our national government with tremendous powers, particularly economic powers and the right to regulate interstate commerce. those powers are often flexible because of the necessary and proper clause that gives congress more power, but they are also limited. the best way to limit powers is
through checks and balances. frq's: don't start the with a blank slate. they are going to be about 10 big topics. we are a big ten state in illinois. we talk a lot about the 10 big topics over the course. i would write these down before i even look at the frq's. ask yourself, how can i write about these? they are foundations, that are losing, public opinion, participation, political parties, interest groups, campaigns and elections, congress, president, and courts. all the frq's will be about those 10 topics, usually three or four of them. if i have written those down on the ledger before i even look at , i ask myself what can i write about political parties here? i think i can write about
interest groups here. guest: you nailed them. daniel larsen is on his game. host: let's go to vanessa. good morning. caller: first of all, i want to give a shout out to my amazing ap government teacher, who i have had for the last three years. my question is, what is the significance of the citizens united supreme court decision? what are the most important supreme court decisions to know on the exam? guest: great question. citizens united are one of those campaign-finance cases we have mentioned before that gives special interest groups, specifically corporations, the power to give unlimited amounts of money to independent groups, political groups. corporations can give unlimited through those independent groups.
the other case you should know fromly versus the layout the 1970's. that is the first time sprinkler makes a precedent, saying the federal government can limit campaign spending through hard money limits. the right to free speech and free petition allows citizens to give political money. that is the first supreme court case that equates money with political speech. guest: supreme court cases are always intimidating. you have a reason to be nervous because there are so many. be with you.h in each and every classroom, the jedi masters have been preparing it. i want to shout out to all of the great teachers out there. nothing happens without your hard work day in and day out. let me highlight some of my favorites. i love talking about selective corporation.
it was a game changer. applying the bill of rights to the states using the due process clause of the 14th amendment, when did this begin? in loud versus new york 1925. there are so many court cases. find four or five and be confident about them. those selective incorporation cases are important. the right to an attorney, those types of cases. roe v. wade typically always appears. privacy, the right to abortion. guest: those civil rights cases, plessy v ferguson that establishes the standard that you could have separate racial facilities, but then brown versus board of education that overturns that. that overturns several but equal in public school classrooms. that heart of atlanta motel case, which is one of our favorite cases that is
underrated. that says that congress and the national government has the power to order the desegregation of public facilities like hotels, motels, and restaurants. host: are you up for a question? caller: sure. host: the u.s. solicitor general is most likely to be the person who does what? coordinates intelligence gathering from among the federal intelligence agencies, overseas decisions about the prosecution of federal criminals throughout the u.s., leads the department of homeland security, argues cases in front of the supreme court, or decides what corrupton to file business practices. most likely to do what? caller: i think d. host: as in dog? caller: yes. host: you got it. guest: there will be executive
branch titles. that makes me sweat a little bit because the bureaucracy is made up of over 3 million workers. where do you begin? there are standards. know the difference between the attorney general and the solicitor general. the attorney general is like the secretary of the department of justice. the solicitor general is that one attorney that argues in front of the supreme court when the federal government as an issue. the bureaucracy is intimidating. for those looking at that last moment of studying, i look at that executive branch. look at the bureaucracy. don't be overwhelmed with the tsunami of information we give you in class. find one good example. trust in that example. i look at an independent regulatory agency like the securities and exchange commission. i will take that all the way to the bank.
literally, the sec oversees wall street. they are the regulatory agency that makes sure banks and wall street are run fairly, or as fairly as they can according to the law. guest: when you get a tough concept, try to make it concrete. bureaucracy tends to be one of those tough concepts. the most concrete examples are the tsa and airports. they know there are rules and laws preventing weapons on airplanes. they know tsa agents are those people preventing that from happening. the tsa are bureaucrats. they are part of the executive branch. they work for the department of homeland security. those are exactly branch employees incrementing the law. keep it concrete and simple. take a deep breath. host: we have another call from pennsylvania. ryan. caller: good morning. i would like to give a shout out vanessa who asked
the previous question. i would like to ask about the different types of federalism and the grants that result from that. guest: great question. federalism is one of those overarching concepts, the idea that the national government is sharing powers with state and local governments. it is guaranteed in the bill of rights, specifically in the 10th amendment of reserved powers. that reserves powers that are not specifically mentioned in the constitution to state and local governments. when it comes to that relationship, we know that has been changing over 200 years. cakesed to be that layer federalism, that it was very distinct what the national government's responsibilities were. now we have marble cake federalism. specifically, public schools are mostly driven by state and local
funding, but we also have national funding that comes in and the department of education with national rules that local schools have to abide by. it is that mixing of federalism. mr. larsen will tell you about his favorite grants. guest: federalism drives to that important question, where is the power in government? certainly the story of american government is the story of federal and grand eyes met -- aggrandizement. they do it through sticks and carrots. sticks areare -- policies that the federal government tells state you must do this. the american disabilities act is amended. all public facilities must be will chair accessible. tends tohe government use carrots more than the sticks. provide money, here is some
money if you do this. that is a way for the national agenda to pass through. grants grants are block and categorical grants. states prefer block grants, broad topics. here is $100 million for transportation. that could be signs, roads, airports. it allows states to decide. the federal government prefers categorical grants. here is $1 billion to build another runway at o'hare in chicago. if you don't build the runway, you don't get the money for transportation. this is a way for the national government to dictate its agenda. host: another call from california. david, you are on the line. hi there. caller: hi there. i would like to give a shout out to my ap government teacher. my question is, what is the process of a bill not getting
passed in the senate but in the house? guest: that is pretty typical in the legislative process because we know the house was intended to pass much more legislation. in the house, they have rules set up that let the majority party really dominate getting legislation through. you don't have unlimited debates. you have much more restricted debates. in the house, you typically debate underclothes rules, which means you are not allowed to amend the legislation during floor debate. the majority party to have much more power in the house. it gives committees much more power. it is those committees where most of the work on legislation is done. it is through markups and the expertise of the individual members of the standing committees in the house. the senate is a different process. it has fewer members, so
committees are not as crucial. because you can debate under open rules, amendments can be allowed in the senate process, which diminishes the role of senate committees. it slows things down. it is typical that a bill can pass the house and then stop. guest: this is an important lesson. we have talked this morning about how the legislative process is slow. not a lot has passed. does that mean our government shuts down? the president can exert power to somewhat circumnavigate congressional authority to pass laws. the president can sign an executive order. that has the authority of law without the congress playing a role. congress has to provide money, that is the power of the purse. the executive orders we have heard a lot about the news with the current president and recent presidents.
the president can make agreements with foreign powers, not a treaty but it is like a tree. this does not require congressional approval. they can circumnavigate a congress that is not passing laws they want. host: we have a question for you. are you ok? caller: yeah. host: a judge is most likely to use this to maintain consistent rulings, landmark decisions, stare decisis, per curiam, a preponderance of the evidence? what do you think? caller: stare decisis. host: there you go. guest: this test is in english, you see latin terms. we have already talked about some. stare decisis is that synonym
for president. we are somewhat of a common-law state where the supreme court is not only bound by the words of the constitution, but they are supposed to follow how the courts have decided in previous cases. we want to quality we don't want the court to decide one way yesterday and another way tomorrow. they are basing their decisions on law and president. ,hey can deviate from precedent but that is not always easy. host: they are doing well. four in a row. let's speak to kayla in washington. caller: good morning. we will but to give a shout out to our ap government teacher. distinguish you can between reinforcing cleavages and crosscutting cleavages? cleavage areutting
those dynamics, demographics that might pull an individual in a different or action. let's say a female college professor from new york who is a nascar driver. those would be demographics that are pulling her in different directions, versus a reinforcing cleavage which is what we see in our political party bases. the idea that the democratic party base is more likely to be african-american ethnic minority. the republican party base is more likely to be exurban or rural, male, and white. guest: one should expect on this test multiple-choice questions that describe typical voters. you need to be prepared, with that typical voter, would they
be more likely to vote republican or democrat? i would review those cleavages and demographic influences. host: let's go to oxford, north carolina. good morning, caesar. i want to start with a question. this is special. it is a bonus question. we have just under 10 minutes left. if you win, we will send you a copy of the constitution signed by senator bernie sanders or senator ted cruz. we have a signed photo of senator ted cruz. here is the question. which type of voter is most likely to take part in a presidential nominating contest? party activist, college student, lower income, unmarried, or independent? caller: party activists. host: there you go. another winner. i'm going to ask while you listen to our guests, stay on the line when you're done so we
can get your mailing information. do you have a question? caller: yes. i would like to know how congress uses congressional oversight over the judicial branch? guest: great question. congressional oversight is the idea that the legislative branch , beside passing bills, also has the power to oversee executive agencies. it is the idea that congress can pass a bill like the food and drug act, but congress also has fda,ower to make sure the part of the executive branch, is carrying out its power. tsa, when there were enormous congress'ssa, one of jobs is to look at these long delays and find out what is the problem. in many cases, congress can use budgetary authority to reward an agency to try to change how they
are operating or punish an agency by cutting back on funds. guest: congress has three primary duties. they make laws. they provide oversight. this is checks and balances. the third, this is what they do quite a lot, which is constituent service. going home every weekend to help the voters solve problems helps their reelection. remember, don't forget about the obvious. congress rights laws. bureaucracyt enforces those laws. the spring court interprets those laws. who votes and two doesn't? there are different kinds of elections. the question is who votes in nominating collections, primaries. turnout is significantly lower. we know a much smaller percentage of voters decide who
our candidates are. when we get to general elections, we are picking winners to fill government positions. turnout is not that high. just over 50%. the type of voters is important to view. look at the elections. host: brandy, you're going to get the other bonus question. are you ready? caller: ok. host: the legislative filibuster. i think we touched on this earlier. it is used by who? majority faction in the u.s. house, minority faction in the u.s. senate, majority factions in the u.s. senate, minority factions in the house? factions in the u.s. senate. host: great job. hang on. we want to get your mailing information as well for one of our top prizes.
you have question? caller: i do. stressesr always knowing the in's and out's of the course. can you go over the difference between writs? that magic golden ticket that means your appeal will be heard by the supreme court. the writ of habeas corpus is a civil liberty guarantee found in the original constitution. it had a few civil liberty guarantees, habeas corpus, cannot be given a bill of attainder, no ex post facto laws. this guarantees that when you are held in custody by the executive branch, they must tell you why you are being held. you cannot just be rounded up and kept for days and weeks and months on end. you have a guarantee of writs of
habeas corpus. i will have tos, call my attorney for that. from: the final call is kayla. good morning. caller: i. hi. i want to make a shout out to my amazing teacher. my question is what are -- triangles? guest: perfect. i am triangles. triangles is an elitist form of policymaking. there are very few voices that are part of this process. an iron triangle classic example is food regulation. congress passes the food and drug act. the fda is regulating safe foods. the classic example is canned
mushrooms. there are six different types of canned mushrooms according to the food and drug act. i learned yesterday that sliced mushrooms have to be sliced between two and eight millimeters. that is officially a sliced mushroom. how did they come up with that thickness? it is the iron triangle. some member of congress or staffer, the house agriculture committee who is working with a federal bureaucrat or agents with the fda who is working with some lobbyist from the canned mushroom association. they will get into a room and decide what is the thickness of a sliced mushroom? that is where they come up with those detailed policies that no one else cares about. that contrasts with issued networks. that is much more common.
you have very combative, very divisive issues that people really care about. school lunches and what goes into the school lunches. that is something a lot of people care about. there's a lot of fighting about that in congress. that is an example of pluralism. you have some a different voices. there's solely different interest groups and so many different members of congress with something to say. those policies take more time to pass because there's so much fighting about them. >> remember, three points on the triangle -- a congressional committee, a bureaucratic agency, and an interest group. these three worked together to pass policy, past laws, maybe to determine the thickness of mushrooms. government.p thanks, as always, to our guests
e to ap government.y the ap government final is this coming thursday. i want to give you a sense of tomorrow's program on "washington journal." guests include the climate and energy program director. we will talk about the trump administration efforts to roll back climate change admin -- climate change regulations. we will talk about the level of conservative support for donald trump, and a constitutional join us.will we hope you enjoy the rest of your weekend. we will see you back here tomorrow at 7:00 for another edition of "washington journal."
[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> here on c-span this morning, "newsmakers" is next with republican congressman rob bishop of utah followed by yesterday's climate change rally on the national mall. after that, chose to rally pennsylvanialy in -- after that, president trump holding a rally in pennsylvania to discuss his first 100 days. isan: our guest this week utah congressman representative rob bishop, chairman of the national resources committee